A Beginner’s Guide to Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence has revolutionized mankind and the demand for AI is increasing manifold each day. Though Artificial Intelligence came into picture in the 1950’s after Alan Turing’s Computing Machinery and Intelligence in which he talks about the Turing Test and asks the question, “ Can machines think?”. From then until now many advances have been made in technology with faster computers, high computations and extremely large storage. AI is the trend of today and therefore it is important to understand the types of AI and different branches of the same.

In 1956, the term Artificial Intelligence was defined by John McCarthy. He defined AI as: ‘The science and engineering of making intelligent machines.’ Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. The term may also be applied to any machine that exhibits traits associated with a human mind such as learning and problem-solving. This definition is given by By Jake Frankenfield.

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What is Artificial Intelligence?

In 1956, the term Artificial Intelligence was defined by John McCarthy. He defined AI as: ‘The science and engineering of making intelligent machines.’ Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. The term may also be applied to any machine that exhibits traits associated with a human mind such as learning and problem-solving. This definition is given by By JAKE FRANKENFIELD.

 

 

Types of Artificial Intelligence – 

There are three types or three stages of AI through which it could evolve- 

  1. Artificial Narrow Intelligence
  2. Artificial General Intelligence
  3. Artificial Super Intelligence

Let us know more about each type 

Artificial Narrow Intelligence – 

Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI) or also known as weak AI is the stage of AI in which we are right now. In this stage machines have no actual intelligence or consciousness; they just follow pre-defined instructions and carry a set of tasks told to them. 

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Examples of Artificial General INtelligence are Siri, Alexa, Google assistant , Cortona ,etc.

 

Artificial General Intelligence –

Also known as Strong AI, AGI is the stage in the evolution of Artificial Intelligence wherein machines will possess the ability to think and make decisions just like us humans.

There are currently no existing examples of Strong AI, however, it is believed that we will soon be able to create machines that are as smart as humans.

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 Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI) –

Artificial Super Intelligence is the stage of Artificial Intelligence when the capability of computers will surpass human beings. ASI is currently a hypothetical situation as depicted in movies and science fiction books, where machines have taken over the world.

“The pace of progress in artificial intelligence (I’m not referring to narrow AI) is incredibly fast. Unless you have direct exposure to groups like Deepmind, you have no idea how fast—it is growing at a pace close to exponential. The risk of something seriously dangerous happening is in the five-year timeframe. 10 years at most.” —Elon Musk quoted.

 

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Types Of AI – 

Based on the functionality of AI-based systems, AI can be categorized into the following types:

  1. Reactive Machines AI
  2. Limited Memory AI
  3. Theory Of Mind AI
  4. Self-aware AI

 

Reactive Machine AI

This type of AI includes machines that operate entirely on current information, taking under consideration solely the present state of affairs. Reactive AI machines cannot type inferences from the info to gauge their future actions. they will perform a narrowed vary of predefined tasks.

An example of Reactive AI is the famous IBM Chess program that beat the world champion, Garry Kasparov.

 

Limited Memory AI

Like the name suggests Limited Memory AI, will build au fait and improved choices by learning the past information from its memory. Such associate degree AI contains an impermanent or a short lived memory that may be wont to store past experiences and thus measure future actions.

Self-driving cars area unit restricted Memory AI, that uses the info collected within the recent past to form immediate choices. For instance, self-driving cars use sensors to spot civilians crossing the road, steep roads, traffic signals so on to form higher driving choices. This helps to forestall any future accidents.

 

Theory Of Mind AI

The Theory Of Mind AI could be an additional advanced style of computing. This class of machines is presupposed to play a serious role in scientific discipline. This sort of AI can focus chiefly on emotional intelligence in order that human beliefs and thoughts may be highly appreciated.

The Theory of Mind AI has not however been absolutely developed however rigorous analysis is going on during this space.

 

Self-Aware AI

Let’s simply pray that we have a tendency to don’t reach the state of AI, wherever machines have their own consciousness and become conscious. this kind of AI may be a very little way fetched given the current circumstances. However, within the future, achieving a stage of superintelligence could be potential.

Geniuses like Elon Musk and Stephen Hawkings have systematically warned the United States of America regarding the evolution of AI. AI may be a terribly huge field that covers several domains like Machine Learning, Deep Learning and then on. Within the below section I’ve coated the varied fields of AI.

 

Branches Of Artificial Intelligence –

Artificial Intelligence can be used to solve real-world problems by implementing the following processes/ techniques:

  1. Machine Learning
  2. Deep Learning
  3. Natural Language Processing
  4. Robotics
  5. Expert Systems
  6. Fuzzy Logic

 

Machine Learning 

Machine learning (ML) is the study of  algorithms that improve mechanically through expertise. It’s seen as a set of computing.Machine learning algorithms build a model supported sample information, referred to as “training data”, so as to form predictions or choices while not being expressly programmed to try and do thus. Machine learning may be a branch of computing (AI) targeted on building applications that learn from information and improve their accuracy over time while not being programmed to try and do thus. In information science, associate algorithmic rule may be a sequence of applied mathematics process steps.

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Under Machine Learning there are three categories:

  1. Supervised Learning
  2. Unsupervised Learning
  3. Reinforcement Learning

 

Deep Learning 

Deep Learning is that method of implementing Neural Networks on high dimensional information to achieve insights and type solutions. Deep Learning is a complicated field of Machine Learning which will be wont to solve a lot of advanced issues.

Deep learning is one in every of the foundations of AI , and therefore the current interest in deep learning is due partially to the excitement of close AI. Deep learning techniques have improved the power to classify, recognize, observe and describe – in one word, understand.

 

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Deep Learning is the logic behind the face verification algorithm on Facebook, self-driving cars, virtual assistants like Siri, Alexa and so on.

 

Natural Language Processing

 

Natural Language process (NLP) refers to the science of drawing insights from natural human language so as to speak with machines and grow businesses.Twitter uses information science to separate out terrorist language in their tweets, Amazon uses information science to know client reviews and improve user expertise.

Natural language process (NLP) could be a subfield of linguistics, applied science, and AI involved with the interactions between computers and human language, specially the way to program computers to method and analyze massive amounts of language knowledge.

 

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Natural language process (NLP) could be a branch of AI that helps computers perceive, interpret and manipulate human language. Information science attracts from several disciplines, together with applied science and linguistics, in its pursuit to fill the gap between human communication and pc understanding.

 

Robotics

Robotics could be a branch of computing that focuses on completely different branches and application of robots. AI Robots are artificial agents acting in an  exceedingly real-world atmosphere to supply results by taking responsible actions.Sophia the mechanical man could be a example of AI .Robotics could be a branch of AI, that consists of technology, engineering, and engineering for coming up with, construction, and application of robots.

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Artificial Intelligence or AI provides robots a  vision to navigate, sense and calculate their reaction consequently. Robots learn to perform their tasks from humans through machine learning that once more could be a part of creating by mental acts and AI.

 

Fuzzy Logic

 

Fuzzy logic could be a computing approach supported the principles of  “degrees of truth” rather than the standard trendy pc logic i.e. Boolean in  nature.Fuzzy logic is employed within the medical fields to resolve complicated issues that involve higher cognitive processes.

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they’re conjointly utilized in automatic gearboxes, vehicle surroundings management and so on. formal logic is an associated approach to a variable process that enables for multiple values to be processed through a similar variable.

 

Expert Systems

A knowledgeable system is Associate in Nursing AI based mostly computing system that learns and reciprocates the choice creating ability of a person’s knowledgeable. Expert systems use logical notations to unravel complicated issues. It doesn’t think about typical procedural programming. knowledgeable systems are in the main employed in data management, medical facilities, loan analysis, virus detection and so on.

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Blog reference : www.edureka.co

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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