Omic’s Technologies: Genomics, Transcriptomics, Proteomics,
Discover how data are measure from the corresponding field.
Omics technology is adopted in a holistic view of molecules that make up an individual, such as cells, tissues, and organisms. It aims primarily at genetic makeup (genomics), mRNA (transcriptomics), protein (proteomics) and metabolites (metabolomics). In a natural setting, omics technology is a non-bias, non-approach in assessing the cell’s macromolecules. It only relies on the physiological attributes of an individual and applies to the science of disease (pathology) in screening, diagnosis, and prognosis diseases and aiding the etiological bases of such diseases. Omics technology includes genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics. The technology has great potential in assessing the genetic-physiological characters of an organism. The goal is to identify the macromolecules of an individual responsible for physiological attributes/traits.
This involves sequencing and analysing the genome (complete set of DNA). The human genome contains about 3billion base pairs organized into 20,000 to 25,000 genes. This expression can be analysed and sequence at once with the help of genomics tools in a single reaction. Genomic tools include DNA microarray, next-generation sequencing. These tools help analyze the most subtle of all and identify the genetic makeup of an individual, for example, a single nucleotide polymorphism (in which nucleotide is substituted for another) and transition and transversion a mutation.
The study of the whole set of transcription involves mRNA, and the transformation, conjugational approach, studying this enables one to identify which gene is switched on/off. This omics technology is a great way to determine the physiological attributes of an individual.
The proteome a set of all expressed protein in a cell that can be derived by translation of the gene. It aims to understand cellular protein processes by studying their pathways alongside the modification of protein-protein interaction. Most used technology and mass spectrometry base and gel base in electrophoresis, proteomics provide a point in time of protein expression in an organism.
Metabolomics is a powerful application compared to other omics technology, which is defined as a large scale of metabolites in a cell or organism, which produces a relatively small amount of molecules compared to genes, mRNA, and protein. Also, it represents the end product with the most current state of biochemical activities in a cell. Though l, metabolome contain small domain (5,000) compared to other omics technology which reflects the chemical and physical complexity of a cell.